# Multiple Regression

Regression in statistics refers to the capability of modeling and relating a series of one or more independent variables with one target dependent variable. The regression equation can be thought of as a function of variables X (the independent variables) and β (the parameters of the regression):

where Y is the dependent variable.

Subject of the Regression Analysis is then finding the parameters β so that the sum of squared error residuals

is minimized. This procedure is sometimes referred to as least squares estimation.

## Linear Multiple Regression

The linear regression assumes that the relationships between independent variables are all linear that is all the β coefficients appear with power one. The following equations:

are both linear regressions even though the independent variables are combined using non-linear functions or powers because both expressions are linear in the parameters β of the regression.

The general linear data model:

can be solved with respect to parameters β by solving the normal matrix equation:

You can download the following example of Linear Regression built using the methods available in Ipredict’s library. The example builds a very simple one week ahead predictor of the Forex EUR/USD.

## Logistic Regression

The logistic regression is used when the dependent variable assumes only two values partitioning in effect the output like in life/death, male/female or buy/sell decisions. Then:

is the regression equation that will be minimized using a least squares approach as in the linear regression case.

You can download the following example of Logistic Regression. The example builds a simple one week ahead predictor of the Forex EUR/USD using a Logistic Regression.

## Tikhonov regularization

Tikhonov regularization, also known as Ridge Regression, is a common method used to regularize ill-posed problems.

The linear matrix equation

requires the inversion of the matrix

that can be ill-conditioned or singular (does not have an inverse). In this case a solution can be found by solving an alternative problem:

where I is the identity matrix. Of course for this reduces to the standard unregularized least squares regression. The optimal determination of the parameter is a very complex problem and this parameter is normally determined using manual or ad-hoc methods.

## Optimal Linear Predictor

The Optimal Linear Predictor is a digital filter that extrapolates linearly from past values the future values of a time-series. This is related to the Autoregressive Model (or AR Model) that is the model that is supposed to be underlying the time-series:

Where Y is the time-series, the are the autoregressive parameters and is white noise. The Optimal Linear Predictor computes all the parameters and then extrapolates the time-series to future values.

You can download the following example of Linear Predictor. The example shows how effective the Linear Predictor is in several useful time-series.

## Optimal Detrended Linear Predictor

The Optimal Detrended Linear Predictor is a digital filter that borrows from the Optimal Linear Predictor the basics. This filter is particularly designed to forecast data that has a linear trend. The method essentially detrends the data before applying the Optimal Linear Predictor operator. The forecast is then re-trended using the original trend parameters.